Milk and Honey

"heaven and earth never agreed better to frame a place for man's habitations." John Smith

In 1607 we see the founding of Jamestown by the Virginia company with the arrival of the three ships: the Susan Constant, the Godspeed and the Discovery. Setting sail from England on 20 Dec 1606, these ships arrived in April 1607 at Cape Henry to establish the first successful American colony. One hundred five settlers landed on Jamestown Island and proceeded up the river to establish Jamestown and build a fort, arriving there 13 May 1607. All were employees of the Virginia Company.

The site of Jamestown was chosen for its military advantages. With deep-water mooring for the ships and being far enough inland to be out of site (and gunrange) of the Spanish, the peninsula was surrounded and thereby protected on three sides by the river and the marshes.

The colonists arriving at Jamestown were met by thick forests. The river sides were covered with swamps, marsh and stagnant water. Wild animals included deer, moose, elk, bear, wolf, lion, squirrels, rabbits and a total species of twenty-eight creatures roamed the forests. Great varieties of birds were in abundance, some eighty-six species. The streams overflowed with every kind of fish and the woods contained chestnuts, grapes, walnuts, crab-apples, whortleherries, strawberries and many other kinds of food. Using crude instruments made of wood and stone, the colonists cultivated beans, peas, onions, melons, potatoes and a host of other vegetables.

The 105 men, who landed in Jamestown faced a life and death struggle of drought, disease, famine and Indians. At first, the climate was mild; Virginia seemed to be a paradise. Blistering heat followed along with swarms of insects from the nearby wetlands, typhus, dysentery, unfit water and shiploads of unsuitable colonists. The blistering summer was followed by a severe, icy winter.

Many of the colonists that came to Jamestown were "gentlemen, whose breeding never knew what a day's labour meant." These men were younger sons of the English aristocracy with no future in England and who were lured to Virginia with promises of wealth. These men did not know how to farm or hunt.

The local natives were members of the great Algonquin Nation with territory that extended along the borders of the present state of Virginia but for a small strip of Manakins of the Tuscarora tribe and small tribes of Chowanoc, Nottoway and Meherrin, who along with their Cherokee neighbors in North Carolina belonged to the Iroquois Nation.

The Algonquins were the first Indian met by the colonists at Roanoke Island, Jamestown, Provincetown and at Plymouth. The Algonquin Nation was divided into tribes such as the Powhatan, Pamunkey, Mattaponi and ohters and each of these tribes was divided into clans or families all descended from a remote ancestor. Descent among the Algonquins was through the female and each clan was represented by a symbol of some animal, bird or reptile. Similar to the Celts of the clans of Scotland, the Algonquins believed that an injury to anyone within the clan was an injury to all in the clan. The chief men of each clan formed the Council of the Tribe, which was presided over by an hereditary chief.

The giant Powhatan Confederacy of Indians included about two hundred villages, as well as eight separate tribes. It had been formed by the great Indian Chief, Powhatan,whose real name was Wahunsonacock, shortly before 1607. All of the members of the confederacy both provided military support to and paid taxes, (pelts, food, perals and copper) to Powhatan. The Powhatan Confederacy controlled the Chesapeake Bay and its tributary rivers in an area that includes modern eastern Virginia and most of Maryland and Delaware. It is said that Powhatan had one hundred wives and one child by each, though there are only a dozen known children that were his.

Upon arrival in Jamestown, the members of the council whose names had been sealed in a box left unopened until reaching the Chesapeake bay were: Bartholomew Gosnold, John Smith, Edward Maria Wingfield, Christopher Newport, John Ratcliffe, John Martin and George Kendall. They elected Wingfield as president and he served about three months before he was succeeded by Captain John Ratcliffe. Ratcliffe too fell short of the council's expectations and he was soon replaced by Captain Smith who retained that office until he departed for England. Captain George Percy administered the government during Captain Smith's absence.

The colonists of 1607 were not the first Englishmen to enter the cape and begin the exploration of Chesapeake Bay. It is recorded that a party from the prior Roanoke Colony entered the capes in 1585 and explored the south to the Bay, discovering the Elizabeth River.

The Jamestown Colony was established as a communal society in which all settlers were required to work jointly together to provide for the community in the common store, as a whole rather than individually. As in most trials of this kind, many shirked their work and the people were not driven to be industrious but rather the few who were hard working provided for the whole who shared the rewards of their labor.

"As at this time were most of our chiefest men either sicke or discontented, the rest being in such dispaire, as they would rather starve and rot with idleness, then be persuaded to do any thing for their owne reliefe without constraint..." John Smith

Though the King had instructed that this communal arrangement continue for five years, Governor Dale, realizing that this plan was a failure, instructed that each colonist receive three acres of cleared land on which the colonist was to plant crops for their own private use. A more liberal plan was established at Martin's Hundred where the colonists were allowed to work for eleven months for their own individual needs and one month for the common store, whereupon each colonist would pay a yearly tribute to the common store of two and a half barrels of corn.

Captain Newport was placed in charge of exploration and as soon as home defense was temporarily organized, he explored the Powhatah River, as named by the Indians. His exploration party included twenty-three adventurers including Captain John Smith. Captain Smith was a short man with a beard. He was feisty, abrasive and self-promoting, as well as ambitious. Captain Smith was an experienced soldier and adventurer, well-organized and motivated. During the time of exploration, the adventurers were treated with hospitality by the Indians they encountered: the Passpaheghs, the Quiyoughcohanocks, the Arrohatecks and the Powhatans. Powhatan allowed the group toexplore the area below the falls of the river and at an island, Newport set up a cross and took possession of the land in the name of the King of England. Powhatan, who had followed the group, was offended by the planting of the cross and began to return to his village. The Indian warriors took this as a sign of hostility and began closing in on the explorers and probably would have massacred them had it not been for an interpretor who hurried after the Indians to assure them that the cross was a sign of friendship. Powhatan called off his warriors and the event passed.

When the explorers returned to the Jamestown settlement, they learned that the Indians had attacked the settlement killing one boy and wounding seventeen men. The Reverend Hunt preached a sermon on "Peace and Concord" and the day after (the 15th of June 1607) the Indians voluntarily sued for peace.

Powhatan, the Indian king was about seventy years old at the time of the Jamestown colonization. He held immense power over various tribes and had the power of life and death over individuals.

Smith continued his explorations during the summber of 1607 and began mapping the countryside along the banks of the Chickahominy. In 1607, Smith, while exploring the Tidewater section, was captured by Powhatan's brother, Opechancanough and was brought before Powhatan himself. The story is that the Indians were about to put Captain Smith to death when Powhatan's daughter, Pocohontas, then only eleven or twelve years old, pleaded for her father to spare his life. Powhatan yielded to her wishes and the Captain's life was spared. We do know that Captain Smith traded with the Indians for corn and that his reputation was not stellar. Perhaps there was an issue of trade that brought Smith before Powhatan. Whatever actually happened, Powhatan agreed to give the settlers food in exchange for iron hatchets and copper ornaments and let Smith go that same evening.

At Powhatan's meeting with Captain Smith, Powhatan was at least sixty years old. When Smith returned to Jamestown, he found that the entire colony had nearly perished in a fire and though the colony had received fresh supplies of food during Smith's absence, the supplies had been destroyed in the fire and the colonists were yet again in need of food. Again, Smith went to Powhatan offering him presents and promises of guns and military support against enemy tribes in exchange for food. Pocohontas became Smith's messenger to her father. Pocohontas also helped the early colony with food and with warnings of attacks.

On 17 September and again in November of 1607, Jamestown had a trial by jury, inaugurating the English custom within the colony. The pinnace Virginia was built as the first vessel of American construction.

8 Jan 1608 marked the arrival of the first ship to reach Jamestown since the original landing, bringing the first shipment of supplies and colonists giving a total of 120 additional members. In the interval there had been sixty-seven deaths. 1607 saw the loss of about one third of the population due to dysentery and typhoid fever. The population of Jamestown now stood at 158. The original fort burned in 1608 and was rebuilt in a new shape, changing to a "five square plan." October 1608 also marked the arrival of the first two women to Jamestown. Other women arrived in 1609/10.

Shortly after his exploration of the James, Newport had departed for England leaving Discovery for the use of the colony and returning in October 1608 with his two ships brought the second supply of seventy more colonists giving Jamestown a total of two hundred men, after deducting twenty-eight deaths. Newport had been ordered to explore the country west of the falls of the James in the territory of the Monacans, hereditary enemies of Powhatan. Despite Smith's protests, stating that every resource needed to be employed in Jamestown's state of defense, Newport carried out his orders to explore that area west of the James and he explored at least forty miles above the falls. The English still believed that the James would lead them to the Indian Ocean.

The Colony under Captain John Smith

The population of Jamestown in 1609 was about 190. Smith explored the Chesapeake and its tributaries while exchanging with the Indians for corn for the colony. In the winter of 1609, Smith's leg was severely burned in an accidental explosion of gun powder, said to have been caused by a pipe, following a failed attempt to establish a second settlement of one hundred twenty persons at Nonesuch, the present site of Richmond. Due to a lack of means to tend his wounds in Jamestown, Smith set sail for England on the 29th of September 1609. He had been at the colony a little over two years and had succeeded in saving the settlers from starvation and protecting them from the Indians. By 1609, Jamestown had suffered one disaster after another. Proposed leaders of Jamestown were then stranded in Bermuda following the shipwreck of the Sea Venture (see below). With Captain Smith gone, the six hundred colonists fell into chaos.

The Indians had a great respect for Smith who had given them numerous occasions to win their respect and their fear in his directing of the colony's affairs. He had ascended the York River to the present site of West Point and though surrounded by several hundred hostile warriors, under Opecahancanough, had managed to single out the Chieftain and while seizing his scalp lock and pointing a pistol to his breast had demanded that the Indians throw down their weapons and supply him with corn. While Smith was gathering food for the colonists and dealing with the Indians, many of the colonists spent their time in Jamestown in idelenss and playing quoits and pitching horseshoes.

Smith left behind him three ships and seven boats, commodities to trade with the Indians, corn, ten weeks provisions in the store, twenty four pieces of ordnance, three hundred muskets along with arms and ammunition more than ample for the men, one hundred trained soldiers, nets for fishing, tools for all kinds of work, sufficient apparel, six mares and a horse (the Indians had no horses), five or six hundred hogs, a like number of hens and chickens, some sheep and goats.

In 1609, expected supplies hadn't arrived to the settlers and they attempted to expand their colony and establish new communities. The summer had been dry and everyone, settler and Indian lacked food. There was murder committed on both sides.

The Starving Time

By June 1610 of the possibly six hundred men left by Smith, only sixty survived.. The period following Smith’s departure was known as the “Starving Time.”

The Light and the Glory by Peter Marshall and David Manuet describes this "Starving Time"

"Thus did the Virginia Colony enter the dark night of its soul -- the time that would soon be known as 'the starving time.' All the livestock had been consumed -- the hogs, sheep, goats, and a few horses (those that had come over on the last ships) -- every bit, even the hide themselves. Next went the dogs and cats, and the rats that had once thrived on their corn, and any field mice they could find, or little snakes. But the hunger continued unabated and now became ravenous. They dug up the roots of trees and bushes and gnawed on them, and every bit of shoe leather on the plantation -- every book cover, every leather hinge or strap or fitting was boiled and eaten. The colonists grew so weak that many, lacking the strength to move, froze to death in their beds. And still, the hunger raged on."

According to an article in the "Washington Post", a study of tree rings at Jamestown reveal that "two of the most ferocious droughts of the millenium may have triggered the mass starvation at... Jamestown and also sealed the fate of the 120 inhabitants of the Lost Colony on Roanoke Island... back to back famines... an amazing drought... that both Jamestown and the ill-fated earlier settlement on Roanoke Island... were founded precisely as epic dry spells were parching large swaths of the Southeast." This same tree ring research may also "help explain the dire condition 20 years later at Jamestown, where nearly half of the 350 colonists alive in June 1610 died by the end of the summer. The period from 1609-1610 is known historically as the 'starving time'... the spell lasted from 1606 until 1612 and ranks as the worst seven-year drought in 770 years."

PBS offers more information concerning the "Starving Time" in Jamestown based upon the studies of pathologist, Frank Hancock who suggests that, based upon his studies, many of the 90% of colonists who died during the "Starving Time" were poisoned with arsenic, perhaps by the Spanish government. Hancock states that the symptoms described by the Jamestown settlers are compatible with arsenic poisioning: bloody diarrhea, extreme weakness and delirium, skin peeling and sudden death. The rat problem in Jamestown might also explain some of the deaths in Jamestown and be connected to a plague, brought to Jamestown by the rats.

Archaeological finds in Jamestown have unearthed seventy skeletons from the early 1600's. Many of the skeletons were burned, another indication that Jamestown may have suffered a plague or of some contagious element.

The poor water conditions may have further added to the high mortality experienced in Jamestown. If the colonists ingested the swampy, brackish water, that alone would have made them ill, as they would have suffered from salt poisoning.

During the "Starving Time" valuable work tools and arms were traded for a crumb of food. The fields lay empty and unworked. Housing became the fuel for firewood during the bitter and icy winter. The Indians found the starving colonists to be easy victims. Trapped within the confines of the Jamestown fort, the colonists ate their way through every living animal and finally one another. Many snuck out from the fort at night, in spite of the very real danger of Indian attack, in order to dig up the remains of those already buried, both English and Indian.

In 1610, William Capps and his wife, Catherine Jernegan reached Jamestown. William located in Kegoughtan, present Hampton County. By 1619, Capps was a member of the first House of Burgesses and in 1623 he was on the Royal Council for the Governor. In 1612, William brought his mother, Cicely Brent or Grint to Jamestown after the death of her husband, William's father. Cicely died in Jamestown in 1640. William's will was made in Long Stratton, present Norfolk County in 1617. His wife, Catherine is listed among the dead in 1623. William died in 1629-37.

William's ship, the Sea Venture had sailed from England along with nine other ships. The Sea Venture, the lead ship, was shipwrecked in Bermuda in 1609 after having been caught in a hurricane. It is the Sea Venture and the survival of the ship's passengers that was the basis for Shakespeare's play, The Tempest, written in 1619. The Sea Venture carried many of the proposed leaders of the colony including Sir Thomas Gates and Sir George Somers. John Rolfe and his wife, Sarah, were also on the Sea Venture. The survivors of the shipwreck were stranded in Bermuda for months. During this time, Sarah Rolfe gave birth to a daughter, Bermuda, but both died soon thereafter. The remainder of the 9 ships arrived in Jamestown in August of 1609 filled with injured or sick passengers. One ship was even said to carry the plague. Four Hundred extra mouths to feed was all the ships carried to Jamestown.

Meanwhile, in Bermuda, one of the passengers of the Sea Venture, John Rolfe, built two ships from the wreckage of the ship Sea Venture. and the stranded passengers finally reached Jamestown 24 May 1610, including William Capps and his family. They were met by ghostly, gaunt figures, the 60 survivors of the winter's "Starving Time", 90% of the colony having perished. There was no food, no crops, no tools, no housing. Those left alive in Jamestown gathered a few belongings and put them on the ships and headed downriver, abandoning Jamestown. They were only ten miles from Jamestown when they met a boat telling them that the new governor of Virginia, Lord Delaware, was on his way with ships of supplies and 150 new colonists.

Governor Sir Thomas Dale

Only a constant influx of supplies and colonists prevented the extinction of Jamestown. On 10 Jun Delaware delivered Jamestown when he arrived in the ship Deliverance, along with her sister ship, Patience, with supplies and ninety new colonists.

Delaware was just in time to intercept Gates, who had deserted Jamestown and with supplies for sixteen days, had planned to take the starving remnant of the Jamestown colony to Newfoundland in hope of recieving assistance from the English fishing fleet. The colonists returned to Jamestown and received Lord Delaware, thanking him for saving them from the perilous journey. Delaware established a health area near Hampton, probably at Buckroe to acclimate the newcoming colonists before forwarding them to Jamestown.

In 1610, the fort was repaired and converted again to the original triangle shape. Jamestown Fort had three streets and included a marketplace and three public buildings. After 1609 military drills became a requirement for all men with each man being trained in the use of a musket, sword and the donning of armor.

In 1611 when Sir Thomas Dale, newly appointed governor of Jamestown, arrived with colonists, cattle and a year's supply of provisions, he found the colonists with only three months supply of food in store and the inhabitants playing bowles in the streets. Dale set them to work felling timber and planting a crop of corn at Kicquotan, near the fort erected there.

A new policy towards the Indians including forcing them to accept English rule. The English destroyed Indian villages and cornfields and ransacked temples, killing women and children and setting entire villages ablaze. In this way, the English cominated the area and opened trade with other tribes.

In June 1611, Sir Thomas Dale sailed up the James to select a site for the new town he had been instructed to found. Many reasons for founding a new town, including the vulnerabilty of the inhabitants in Jamestown to Spanish attacks. The town of Henricus could be more easily defended and because of the marshy terrain of Jamestown, it was thought that Henricus might be more healthful for the colonists, as Henricus was more elevated and had better drainage. While in search of a location for the new town, Dale ascended the river to the falls and then returned to a high land area with the Mayne River, near an Indian town called Arrahattocke. It was their intention, if this new settlement proved successful, to abandon Jamestown unless the situation there vastly improved. The Privy Council had selected the name Henrico, Henricus, Henricopolis in honor of Prince Henry of Wales, the patron of the Company and an enthusiastic supporter of the plan to colonize Virginia. His untimely death 16 November 1623 was a great loss to the colony.

In Feb 1613, John Clay arrived in Jamestown aboard the Treasurer. John was called "The English Grenadier". He was probably born in Monmouthshire, Wales abt 1587. His wife, Anne Nicholls, did not join him until August 1623, when she arrived on the Ann. John probably travelled back and forth from Virginia to England during this ten years before Anne joined him in Virginia. John and Anne were married about 1612 in England. In May of 1619, we see the arrival of a William Nichols, servant, age 26 in the Duke. They settled at Jordan's Journey in Charles Cittie 21 Jan 1624/25. Together, John and Anne had eight children. A soldier in the British Army, John gained the rank of Captain by the age of 21 and was sent to Virginia to control problems that were developing. John was placed in charge of the fifty Muskateers aboard Captain Samuel Argall's ship, the Treasurer, which was sent to protect the settlers at Jamestown. John eventually became sympathetic to the cause of the settlers and resigned his military post.

Virginia, Tobacco and Pocohontas

Pocohontas was sent to the Northern Neck by her father to hide her from the English and in 1613, she was treacherously lured aboard ship for the price of a copper kettle by Chief Japazaws, King of he Patowomacks, and his wife. (Later, following the massacre of 1622, Captain Maddison, using the pretense of visiting a white settler that lived in the Indian town of Japazaws, massacred all of the Indians in that town that did not flee and captured Japazaws, his wife and sons and held them in Jamestown until they were ransomed. ) Pocohontas was persuaded to go aboard the ship, Treasurer, captained by Captain Samuel Argall and was taken to Jamestown where she was held captive in order to secure the ransom of Englishmen who were prisoners of Powhatan. Pocohontas was now a young woman of seventeen and married to a warrior by the name of Kocoum, Powhatan's captain.

Pocohontas was held about a year and during the period of captivity, Pocohontas was wooed and won by John Rolfe, a leading citizen of Jamestown and a widower who was ten years older than Pocohontas. Pocohontas was actually her nickname and meant "Frisky" or "Playful One." Her birth name was Matoaka. Pocohontas probably knew a great deal about tobacco. Though the Indian women grew the food and the men grew the tobacco, Pocohontas, with her insatiable curiosity, probably tended to roam into the back areas of the village where the tobacco was grown.

John Rolfe had begun growing tobacco in 1612 but he obtained seeds not from the Indians but from the coveted Nicotania Tabacum strain grown in Trinidad and South America, although Spain had placed a penalty of death upon anyone selling the prized strain to a non-Spaniard. Rolfe also discovered better ways to grow and cure the tobacco, perhaps through the aid of Pocohontas. Rolfe named his tobacco Orinoco.

During the captivity of Pocohontas, she received daily Bible lessons and eventually changed her name to Rebecca when she was baptized, the first convert of her tribe. She was treated kindly by the Jamestown settlers, some of whom could recall her and her friends performing cartwheels down the Jamestown streets when she was still a girl.

It would appear that Kokoum died before 1614 and that Pocohontas was unmarried when, in 1614, Pocohontas married John Rolfe on 15 April in the little Anglican church at Jamestown, with the approval of Powhatan although he did not attend the wedding. He did, however, send her uncle, Opachisco, to the wedding and two of his sons. The marriage of John Rolfe and Pocohontas brought about eight years of peace with the Indians; years that were used to perfect the cash crop that would save Jamestown, tobacco.

King James was angered by Rolfe's marriage to Pocohontas because Rolfe, a mere commoner, had married into the native royalty and therefore had married very much outside his own class. In an earlier ceremony, James had crowned a reluctant Powhatan as "King of Virginia." James feared that if Powhatan died, Rolfe could succeed him as King.

Overtures were made in 1614 to Powhatan requesting the hand of his youngest daughter in marriage but Powhatan refused but in the case that his oldest daughter might die. Pocohontas was said to have had living twenty brothers, eleven sisters and eleven stepmothers. Her father's name was Wauhunsenacawah (Wahunsonacock), though we know of him as Powhatan.

Ruins of Jamestown

The introduction of tobacco to the colony in 1613 by John Rolfe would forever change the crop structure in Virginia and throughout the southeast.The first colonists were made up of about half from the class of gentlemen; the remainder was craftsmen,artisans, and laborers. The group included a minister, the Rev. Robert Hunt of the Church of England.

In July 1614 Captain Samuel Argall, captain of the Treasurer, was sent by Governor Dale to remove a settlement of the French in northern Virginia. Argall surprised settlers at Port Royal and St.Croix, dispersed them and captured two vessels that were loaded with supplies, having recently arrived from France. Again in October, Argall again destroyed several more French settlements, destroying Port Royal and St.Croix and erecting crosses of English ownership. Argall then proceeded to anchor off Manhattan Island, where he required the Dutch Governor there to "submit himself and the plantation to his Majesty and to the Governor and government of Virginia." Also in 1614 Captain John Smith made a voyage to Northern Virginia and chartered the coastline, giving it the name of New England. He never returned to Jamestown.

In 1616, three hundred fifty-one persons were estimated as living in the colonies.

John Rolfe, taking his wife, Pocohontas and his son, Thomas, left Jamestown for England in 1616 in order to make trade negotions for tobacco with England, taking with them aboard the Treasurer, a party of Indians of both sexes, which were to be educated in England. In England, Pocohontas, speaking good English and acting very gracious and ceremonious, was very well received. Smith visited Pocohontas in England, whereupon she expressed surprise that he was alive, having been told that he had died. She called him father and insisted that he call her child. Pocohontas had worshiped Smith as a twelve year old child and she had never forgotten her first impression of him. Unfortunately, because Captain Smith was a commoner, it was difficult for him to see Pocohontas as often as they may have wished.

"Princess Pocohontas"
"Captain John Smith"

King James despised tobacco and disapproved of it becoming Virginia's major cash crop. He even wrote "De abusu Tobacci", warning of the dangers of tobacco. The enormous import duties placed upon tobacco, as well as the English demand for tobacco made Rolf'es negotiations successful and tobacco became the rage.

The early plantations of Virginia were similar to military camps in which individual colonists were under strict command including rigorous administration of justice, economic regulations imposed by the Virginia Company and all shared a fear of Indian attack. These plantations were called: plantations, hundreds and were identified by names. Located on both sides of the James River, in the vicinity of Jamestown, these plantations planted crops and built palisades and forts for common defense. As the colony grew, some of these planters moved further away from the more populated areas into new, unsettled areas.

John Baynham (Banum) transported himself to Jamestown as a gentleman planter. John was born in probably in Gloucestershire, England about 1570 and appears to have been married to Elizabeth Unknown in England where his son, John was born. John, his wife and his son all arrived on the Susan to Jamestown in 1616 from the port of London. John and his family probably lived in or near London. During the period of 7 Jul 1620 through 7 Jun 1624, "Mr.Baynham" appears forty times as a member of the Quarter Courts held for the colony. All "adventurers" who paid their own way to Virginia were members of the Court. John Baynham was one of those complaining about the Virginia Company's administration and was lobbying for the dissolution of the Company. He was present at a court in Virginia 12 Apr 1623 that discussed this petition.

The Susan was a small ship and arrived carrying four passengers and a load of clothing for the colonists. At 46 years of age at the time of his immigration, he is older than most of the colonists and on the 1623 muster is the third oldest person in the colony. On 17 Jan 1619/20, John received a patent for his "first divident" of land, 200 acres located in Tappahanna across the river from James Cittie in what later became Surry County. Not long thereafter, John traded this land for land in what later became Warwick County. It is perhaps noteworthy that on 28 Jun 1620 a John Gray assigned two shares in the London Company to a goldsmith, Richard Baynham of London. This Richard was, through these two shares, entitled to land in Virginia, which he never claimed. On August 1620, an Elizabeth Baynham arrived to Jamestown in the Bona Nova. The Bona Nova was a relatively large ship and left London in April with 153 passengers, arriving in Jamestown in August.

The premium for each person brought into the colony was reduced from 100 acres to fifty acres, which was allowed only to those who came over themselves or brought others over. Because tobacco had become so profitable, many of the planters had neglected growing corn and a rule was made that all planters must not plant any tobacco until their household was provided with corn.

In 1617, John Rolfe, then appointed secretary and recorder for the Colony of Virginia, departed Gravesend with his wife and son for Jamestown but had not cleared the port before Pocohontas became gravely ill with influenza or smallpox. She died at Gravesend at age 22 and was interred near the nave of St.George's Church.

Rolfe returned to Jamestown following his wife's death, placing his son, Thomas, also sickly, in the care of Sir Lewis Steukley, viceadmiral of Devon. John Rolfe would never see his son again. The boy was, in a short time, taken to London by his uncle, Henry Rolfe, with whom he remained until he had received his education. Rolfe later married Joane, daughter of William Pierce who had come to Jamestown in 1609. In 1622, Rolfe made out his will stating him to be "sick and weak in body." His name does not appear on the list of the dead but since his farm at Bermuda Hundred was destroyed, most believe that he was killed in the massacre of 1622 at the age of 37.

After Rolfe returned to Virginia and notified Powhatan of his daughter's death, Powhatan resigned his leadership in favor of Opitchapan, his brother, and Powhatan moved as far as possible from the English settlements.

Not content to remain in England, Thomas Rolfe, son of John and Pocohontas "Rebecca" Rolfe, returned to Virginia at the age of 20 in 1635, to reclaim his birthrights, both English (his father's plantation of Varina, where Thomas had been born), and Indian. His grandfather, Powhatan had left him thousands of acres all around Jamestown. Thomas married an Englishwoman, Jane Poythress, and began a family. Thomas became a person of distinction in the colony and had one child, a daughter, who married Col. Robert Bolling. From this couple, many Blairs, Bollings, Lewises and Randolphs claim descent.

In 1617, Lambert discovered a new means of curing tobacco and this tobacco was called "sweet scented", heightening the value of tobacco. There were fifty-four laborers and eighty-one farmers, plus those of the gentleman class, not enumerated in the colony in 1617.

A New Year, A New Indian King

A great hailstorm hit Jamestown in May of 1618 with a reported hail size of nine inch circumference. During that year, Lord Delaware, coming to Virginia with two hundred colonists, died off the coast. Thirty of the colonists died enroute and the ships, blown off their course, landed on the coast of Northern Virginia (New England) where they spent time hunting and fishing and recuperating before arriving in Jamestown. Three new settlements were established: Flowerdieu Hundred, Martin's Hundred and Maycock's Hundred. 1618 also marked the death of Powhatan, who was succeeded by his brother, Opitchapan, a cripple. Opecancanough, a younger brother, assumed the title, "King of Chickahominy" but he was the real leader of the Indians until the death of Opitchapan, whereupon he bcame the king of the Powhatans. Opecancanough, while protesting love and affection for the colonists, he secretly plotted their destruction, while deliberately seeking and securing the promises of cooperation from the sub-chiefs and tribes who fell beneath his overlordship. Also in 1618, Sir Walter Raleigh was beheaded in London.

The estimated colonists to Virginia from December 1618 to November 1619 was 840, leaving a population alive in Virginia in December of 1619 at 900. In 1619, Puritan refugees from Holland, having been visited by Captain Smith, decided to settle on the southside of the Hudson in Northern Virginia. One hundred twenty persons sailed on the Mayflower in 1620, landing at Patuxent (New Plymouth) on December 11. In 1620, when the Separatists or Pilgrims landed at Plymouth there were 2,200 colonists living at or near Jamestown.

In 1619, the House of Burgesses met; the first representative assembly in the New World. Also, in 1619, the first Africans arrived on a Dutch trade ship that had run low on food and traded the Africans for food supplies. These Africans became indentured servants, as slavery did not develop in Virginia for another sixty plus years. Prior to 1700, many indentured women had children with African fathers. These mulatto children were born free. Around 1700 a law was passed that punished white women who had children by African men. After 1700, the children of these women were often taken away from their mothers and sold as "indentured servants" until they were of age 21. Many if not most of the non-gentlemen colonists also arrived as indentured servants. Indentured servitude generally lasted seven to eight years and was usually ended with payment in the form of land. Most of our ancestors arrived as indentures.

"Many of the spirits [people who recruited indentured servants] haunted the London slums and those of Bristol and other seaports. It was not difficult to find hungry and thirsty victims who, over a dinner and much liquor, would sign anything before them. The spirit would then hustle his prey to his headquarters to be added to a waiting company of others, safely kept where they could not escape until a ship was ready for them. An easier way was to pick up a sleeping drunk from the gutter and put him aboard a vessel for America, where, with no indenture, he could be sold to his own disadvantage and with the American planter's gain. Children were valuable and could be enticed with candy to come along with a spirit. Sometimes they, and older people too, were seized by force."
Multicultural Activities for the American History Classroom.

The journey from England to Virginia lasted 8-12 weeks. Indentured servants were crowded into small quarters, often without any fresh air. While at sea, the servants were given an allowance of bread every two weeks that usually lasted only 8 days. For some indentures, their contract of service was arranged before departure. Their indenture was usually for four to seven years. Other indentures were bought and sold upon arrival. Indentures had few rights. They were not allowed to marry without the consent of their masters and were unable to buy or sell anything. Female indentures were often raped and had no legal recourse. Indentures were often beaten or whipped by their masters. The indenture's work in the tobacco fields was hard and grueling and overseers were often cruel and beat the servants. Many masters devised schemes to lengthen the indenture's service but most were freed upon completion of their indenture.

The indentured servant received their passage to Virginia and at the completion of service received:

A tract of land equal to at least twenty-five acres.
Enough corn to last for twelve months.
A house newly erected.
A cow valued at forty shillings.
Armor for protection against Indians.
Implements and tools.
Two sets of wearing apparel:
A suit of kersey and a suit of cotton.
One pair of canvas drawers.
One canvas and One lockram shirt.
One felt hat.
One gun and 1 years supply of ammunition.

An indentured servant, George Aslop wrote his family in England of the life of an indentured servant in Virginia.

" The indentured Servants of this Colony (Virginia), which
are stigmatized as slaves by the clabber mouth jaws of the vulgar in England, live more like Freemen here than most Mechanic Apprentices in London, wanting for nothing that is convenient or necessary and accordingly are extraordinarily well used and respected."

In return for sponsoring an indentured servant, the master received a headright of 50 acres per servant.

Unlike the other American colonies, Virginia was settled primarily by businessmen through the Virginia Company. These men desired that the Church of England flourish in Virginia and therefore they sent many Anglican ministers to the colony. As in the Crusades, the native Americans were seen as pagans and the colonists saw themselves engaged in religious warfare and desired only to see the Anglican Church spread the Gospel throughout the colony. Under the governorship of Thomas Dale who died in 1619, it was mandatory that everyone attend church and be catechized by a minister and refusal to do so was punishable by execution or slave labor in the galleys.

The House of Burgesses first assembly in 1619 was marked by stern laws about religion that rivaled any passed by their Puritain northern neighbors. Virginia became the bastion for the Anglican church. The minister's salaries were fixed by law and were to be paid as follows: 1,500 weight of tobacco and 16 barrels of corn, then estimated to be 200 pounds sterling.

In 1619 the city of Henricus included Henrico (Farrar's Island) and extended westward on both sides of the James River. Rev. Copeland, chaplain of the "Royal James" raised some 70 pounds among the ship's company to pay for a free school in Virginia. Subsequent gifts of two anonymous subscribers raised this figure to 125 pounds. The location for the school was determined to be Henricus and to be known as the East India School (as it was started on an East India ship.) Ten thousand acres and five servants and an overseer was allotted to support a Master and usher. Carpenters were sent over in 1622 to begin construction of the school. One hundred acres was established for a primary school. A portion of the university was set aside for educating the Indians. By 1622 construction had begun on the university, which now had a number of houses and a tavern to lodge guests. The coming massacre would entirely destroy the inhabitants and the buildings of Henricus and the college was never rebuilt.

Seeking to convert the native population in Virginia, the Virginia Company instructed its governors to work to convert the native population. Pocahontas was baptized by the Rev. Alexander Whitaker prior to her marriage to John Rolfe in 1614. In 1620 a fund was created to be used in the education (and conversion) of Indian children. In 1621 the Virginia Company suggested that the "best disposed" of the Indians be engaged by the planters in order to bring them to a "civil way of life" and that a percentage of Indian children should be introduced to the elements of literature and that the most gifted of these should be fitted for College. Many of these Indian youths had come to live in the homes of the colonists during this time period of the Indian integration policy.

The vast majority of setters to Jamestown and Virginia during this time period until the 1690’s were from England. Over half of the men and boys who founded Jamestown were gentlemen, in 1608 thirty-seven of those who arrived were also gentry.Throughout the 17th century, the emigrants from England continued to be young, single and male, but the vast majority was indentured servants,estimated to be near 80% of the total immigrants. Men outnumbered women by two or three to one.

In 1620 the "brides ship" contained ninety maids who had journeyed from England to marry Virginia planters. The stipulation was that they could not marry servants but rather must select a husband from the free men who would then pay her transportation fee. In 1621 another "bride" ship arrived carrying 60 more maids of "gentle birth and good character". In this second arrival, we already see the change tobacco was making in the colony as payment for this second shipment of brides was to be paid in 150 pounds of the "best leafe Tobacco."

In 1620, John Smith tells us that some twenty-one ships arrived in Jamestown carrying some 1300 women and children. The years 1618-1623 saw a population explosion in Virginia as the population grew from 400 to 4,500.

Arriving on the Bona Nova in 1620 is Benjamin Knight. Benjamin was a servant to Captain William Epps. He is living on the Eastern Shore 16 Feb 1623.

In 1620 John Tryre, age 20, boarded the ship Abigaile with the muster of Dr.Pott's men in the Maine. Potts planned to establish a Hundred with the 1610 plantation known as Hampton. James Cittie was the destination, Potts' docking and registration site. The Abigaile arrived safely and John Tyree patented fifty acres on the Chickahominy River. This fifty acres was probably his headright. In 1648 John Tyree would receive a grant for 200 acres of land in the county of James City, granted for the transportation of four persons. This 200 acres was on the main branch of Powell's Creek.

An interesting note on the Abigaile. The ship arrived with no food supplies and infected the colony with diseased survivors poisoned by "stinking beere." The plague and starvation brought to Virginia by the Abigaile reduced the colony to 500 survivors who desperately await the Abigaile's sister ship, the Seaflower, which never arrived, as it was accidently set fire by the Captain's son.

By 1620 the Virginia Chesapeake population was around 900, by 1640 this number had grown to 8,000 and over triple that number by 1660. Despite these numbers, the Chesapeake remained an unhealthy environment with disease, starvation, and Indian attacks continuing to be a constant source of minimizing the population.

In 1621 the first Irish immigrants arrived being some eighty in number and settling at Newport News as their point of embarcation was Neucetown (Neuse of Newse), Ireland. This was a large tract of land in what is now Elizabeth County and included both Irish and English. The tract was part of a tract owned by Sir William Neuse and his brother.

John Baynham, Jr. arrived in Virginia in November of 1621 in the ship Charles from London. He does not appear to be on the Muster of 1623/24 and is presumed to be dead by that time.

In 1621 the total population of Virginia was assessed to be near 4,000.

John Coker arrived in Virginia on the Warwick in 1621 at the age of twenty. John, as well as nineteen other men were granted passage by Justinian Cooper, who received a patent of 1000 acres on the Isle of Wight, now Smithfield.

King James granted the fourth charter to the London Company in 1621, which "authorized two supreme councils in Virginia". One was the "Council of State" to which Samuel Macock (Maycock) was appointed. Those appointed to the Council were to reside near the Governor and to meet quarterly. The other council was to consist of the House of Burgesses and the Council of State and was to meet annually, excepting extraordinary occasion and was to be called the "General Assembly".

Samuel Maycock was educated at Cambridge College and was sent in 1617 to Jamestown by the Virginia Company to serve as pastor of the first church built at Jamestown at the request of Governor Samuel Argall. Samuel established himself at the "Maycock Plantation" forty miles north of Jamestown on the south side of the James River. This land was patented to him in 1618. (It was there that General Cornwallis would later cross the James during the Revolution on 24 May 1781.) Maycock Plantation was in the heart of the Weanoc Indians. The Maycock Plantation home was burned in a fire between 1640 and 1660. The home was made of wood timbers and was about 20x35 feet. The year following the fire another house was built about three blocks from the first site and was constructed of brick. It is ironic that it also burned.

Edward Hill settled at Basse's Choyce, in the Warrascoyack area downstream from Bennett's Plantation in an area in which a patent had been granted to Nathaniel Basse and Arthur Swayne (Swan). Edward Bennett had undertaken the plantation and we find him in Virginia with his settlers in October of 1622. Most, if not all, of the settlers in Bennett's settlement were Puritans. Edward arrived with his wife, Hannah Jordan and his brothers: Thomas and William. The Hill's, Edward, William and Thomas, settled beside Edward Bennett. In the Census of the Living of Feb. 16, 1623, we find Edward Hill listed with Hannah Hill and infant daughter, Elizabeth Hill, Edward's brothers William and Thomas and Frances Hill, all listed as living at Basse's Choyce. The Hills were probably a seafaring family involved in the trade between Virginia, the Caribbean and England.

The Massacre of 1622

"When the swift savage axe Flashed in the fire-light, treacherous, and fell, And all the far plantations shook with death."

Opechancanough, well trained by the Spanish in military warfare, had carefully planned the attack. Opechancanough had been captured by a Spanish ship that landed in Chesapeake Bay in 1561. He spent five years in Spain, receiving a thorough education by the priests. He studed and observed Spanish life and customs and learned patience, diplomacy and planning from the Dominicans and later the Jesuits. He was then placed on a Spanish ship and spent three years in Mexico where he saw the natives become second class citizens in their own land. He then returned to Spain where he continued his education with the Jesuits for another three years. Eventually he was returned to his own land as a missionary and interpreter but when he returned to his own native ways (such as holding multiple wives), he was severely reprimanded and humiliated by the accompanying Jesuit priests. He eventually denounced Christianity and killed his Spanish allies. (Carl Bridenbaugh)

The marriage of Rolfe and Pocohontas, though restraining Powhatan, had not produced a long-lasting peace, nor a full understanding between the Indians and the English. The Indians were deeply offended that the English refused to continue the intermarriage that Rolfe had set by example with Indian women. The English were completely unaware of the offense felt by their Indian neighbors of "offended pride and 'mortification'". They did not know that the Indian never forgets or forgives an affront. Though the Indians were welcomed into the homes and tables of the planters, the spirit of hate was cultivated by Opechancanough, who, while renewing the treaty with the English, was secretly preparing his followers for the indiscriminate masacre of every man, woman and child in he colony. The influx of colonists by 1622 alarmed Opechancanough and he well remembered how the Spanish had treated the natives in Mexico.

All the while, the unsuspecting colonists instructed the Indians in the use of firearms and furnished them with rifles, powder and ball to assist them in their hunting and self-defense. Unlike their New England and New Amsterdam counterparts, the Virginians, rather than settling in towns and forts, were spread out along the rivers and lowlands of the Tidewater.

On March 21, 1622,the Indians came bringing food gifts to share with the colonists. The following morning, they freely socialized with the settlers before disaster struck. On Good Friday of March 22, 1622, at mid-day, while socializing with the colonists, the Indian war hoop signaled throughout the settlements as each savage suddenly seized the colonist’s work tools and began to attack the settlers, each Indian swooping down upon the victim selected for his scalping knife, even those who had been kind to them. The Indians attacked the families in the plantation houses and then moved out into the fields to kill the workers and servants, burning the plantations, killing the livestock and mutilating the dead and dying before they moved on.

The victims, surprised and defenseless, fell within the hour. No mercy had been shown to age nor sex, though some women, first thought dead, were captured and taken to the Indian villages. That morning 1,240 people were in the colony and that afternoon 893 survived, many of these only because Chanco had given warning. One fourth of the entire colony had been massacred.

Wolstenholme Towne suffered the highest death toll of any settlement. Some of the settlements did not send in a report of the dead. Shock and melancholy overwhelmed the colonists. Martin's Hundred alone suffered a loss of 77 persons.

"The deliberate, admirably timed attempt to exterminate the white invaders was, no doubt, thought of by Opechancanough and his followers as a stroke for Indian freedom. We have seen that since 1613 he had been planning an all-out attack. By means of diplomacy of which any European could have been proud, this chieftain united the Powhatans, their "auxiliaries", and the Chickahominies, worked out tactics with consummate skill, and decided upon the day and hour when, simultaneously, the natives were to fall upon all of the whites.
"The preservation of secrecy throughout the entire undertaking was miraculous. Employing both Indian and European methods of deception and surprise, he won a victory that elicited reluctant praise from many leaders across the sea.....All things considered, the 'massacre' of 1622 was probably the most brilliantly conceived, planned, and executed uprising against white aggression in the history of the American Indians." (Carl Brandenbaugh)

Richard Pace had taken in an Indian boy named Chanco, Richard's godson, and had educated him, along with his own son, George, in the Christian religion. Chanco's brother spent the night before the attack with Chanco and gave Chanco orders that Chanco should strike his patron down at noon the next day. As his brother sped away, Chanco, awakened the sleeping Pace, saying that Richard had treated him as a son and warned him of the attack. In the middle of the night, Richard secured his family and rowed the three miles across the James River to warn Jamestown. But for Richard’s warning, the entire colony would have been exterminated.

"The slaughter would have been universal if God had not put it into the heart of an Indian boy, Chanco, lying in the house of one RICHARD PACE, to reveal to PACE the plan and time of the massacre, and had not RICHARD PACE rushed off to Jamestown and notified the Governor."
Pace Family History

Richard Pace, a carpenter at Wapping, a suburb of London, was brorn in the latter 1580's. On 5 Oct 1608, Richard married Isabella Smyth of Wapping at St.Dunstan's in Stepney Parish, London. They sailed, along with Richard's friend, William Perry, from Blackwater Pier, two miles from Wapping, and arrived in Virginia in August of 1611 on the ship, Marmaduke. Richard was one of the few colonists that immigrated to Virginia with his wife. In 1620 Richard and Isabella were given a land grant on land on a bluff across the James River from Jamestown Fort, four miles from Jamestown. Richard named the plantation "Pace's Paine". Richard had served the colony in several capacities and received another 100 acres. Richard also received land for six persons that he brought into Virginia. Eventually, Pace's Paines was a plantation of 600 acres.

Richard probably died at Pace's Paine in 1624 and by 9 May 1625 a record shows that Isabelle had married their good friend and neighbor, Captain William Perry, himself a widower. About 1635 Isabelle and her son, George, sold Pace's Paine. Isabelle died after 1635 in Jamestown, VA.

Included in the dead was Rev. Samuel Maycock and his wife, name unknown. Samuel was killed on his plantation along with three of his men. The only survivor on the Maycock Plantation was 6 month to two year old Sarah Maycock who had been hidden before or during the attack. It is interesting to note that also included among the dead is a John Beanam. Listed as dead a year earlier (1621) is a George Banum, said to have been in the Company of those that "came out with us to serve under our Leifetenants" at Martin's Hundred.. It is unknown if either of these is related to John Baynham though Martin's Hundred is located near John Baynham's settlement at Blunt Point. However, the population of Martin's Hundred was almost entirely servants. Also included in the dead was Catherine Jernegan Capps, wife of William Capps of Elizabeth Cittie.

Richard and Isabelle Pace's son, George, was born in 1609, before Richard and Isabelle left England. George married Sarah Maycock, infant survivor of the Massacre of 1622 about 1636. Sarah was shown on the 1623/24 muster as living with the family of Captain Roger Smith of James Cittie. Roger Smith's wife was the daughter of Captain William Pierce and widow of John Rolfe, who was also killed in the Massacre of 1622. Sarah was about 15 when she married George Pace. George and his bride, Sarah, lived on the Maycock Plantation following their marriage. The plantation had probably lain vacant since the massacre. George worked the plantation until his death in 1655 when his son, Richard inherited the plantation and lived there until at least 1673 and probably until his death in 1677. In 1650 George obtained a grant for 1,700 acres for 34 headrights and in 1652 George received another 507 acres for the transportation of ten more individuals.

Among the living in the 1623 Muster are: Rice ap Williams at the Plantation over against James Cittie (Rice ap Williams was probably born in Wales due to the naming fashion using ap); John and Elizabeth Banum, living in Elizabeth Cittie (John is listed as age 54, his wife, Elizabeth Banum is listed as age 43); Benjamin Knight listed in the Muster of Captain William Epps as an inhabitant on the Eastern Shore; John Tyree; John Coker; Richard Jones, age 22 in Flowerdew Hundred; William Capps and his mother, Cicely Capps of Elizabeth Cittie, all survived the attack. Also among the living we find John Clay, listed in Charles City County.

It is of interest that of the original 105 settlers, only 2 were still living on the 1623/24 Muster. About 7,000 persons had sailed for Virginia during this seventeen years but only 1,200 were still alive at the time of this muster.

The colony seemed doomed. The following months between March and December would determine the colony's future. The survivors left their plantations and scurried to Jamestown Fort, where they lay in overcrowded, ill-prepared quarters, awaiting another attack. Many secured passage to England and nine out of ten plantations were left without even one inhabitant. Those survivors who did not flee to England concentrated upon the more easily defended plantations: Sherley Hundred, Flowerdieu Hundred, Passaphahey, Kicquotan and Southampton Hundred. Samuel Jordan of Jordan's Point and Mr.Gookin and his Irish settlers at Newport News refused to obey the Governor's order and remained in their homes, ready to defend themselves. Edward Hill, at Elizabeth City, "altho' much mischief was done to his cattle, yet did himself alone defend his house, whilst all his men were sick and unable to give him any assistance." (Stith)

Edward Hill, along with William and Thomas fled during the massacre to Elizabeth Cittie, where Edward held a land grant of 100 acres. Also listed as survivors were his wife, Hannah Jordan Ashton and their daughter, Elizabeth.

The colonists were afraid to work in the fields, which lay neglected. Many of the crops had been burned by the Indians and the settlers again suffered a starvation period in which over four hundred settlers died. Ironically, the colonists were forced to trade with the Indians for corn and supplies. In December of 1622, the Abigaile arrived bringing not only supplies and colonists, but also disease, which resulted in further plague and starvation, and reducing the colony’s numbers to 500, the entire colony having been numbered at 1,050.

The massacre was followed by swift, grim and aggressive action by the remaining Jamestown settlers who began a systematic destruction of Indian crops and villages, slaughtering Indian men, women, and children. Many of these acts of retribution were led by Captain Isaac Maddison.

After the massacre, there were several women who were unaccounted for and presumed dead. Rather, twenty women had been captured and were being held at the Indian town of Pamumkey. At first, no attempt to locate the missing women was made. The colony was too busy trying to care for themselves and prepare for another Indian attack. A list of the dead was quickly published in London so that the heirs could claim inheritance from their loved one's Virginia holdings. Slowly the survivors began to believe that the missing women were still alive.

Fifteen of the twenty captive women were from Wolstenholme Towne. The men who had been captured were immediately put to death. In 1624 Captain John Smith's Generall Historie of Virginia was published and included a report that an expedition to the Potomac River had received a report in mid summer of 1622 that twenty women were being held prisoner by the Powhatans and imploring the Governor to secure their release.

Virginia governor, Sir Francis Wyatt, began making overtures to Opechancanough for the return of the twenty colonists held prisoner at Pamunkey. Opechancanough had been unprepared for the brutal retaliation launched by the survivors. In desparation, he negotiated for peace using the captured women as ransom. To show good faith, Opechancanough returned Mrs. Boyce to Jamestown. The colony officials did not negotiate with Opechancanough at that time. They were more intent on killing more Indians and did not trust Opechancanough.

Governor Wyatt invited the Indians back to their usual habitations to plant their corn, while planning to overcome the Indians when their corn was full grown and drive them out of the country and confiscate their crops but Openchancanough refused to walk into the trap.

A peace parley was arranged in May 1623 and May 22d, Captain William Tucker and muskateers met with Opechancanough to negotiate the release of the hostages. The English never meant to establish a peace with the Indians. Rather, Tucker's goal was to slaughter the Powhatan leaders and approximately two hundred of the Powhatans were poisoned when they drank wine that Dr.John Pott, Jamestown's resident physician, had prepared. Some fifty more were shot. Opechancanough managed to escape and with him went any hope for the captive women.

The period of retribution lasted ten years and by 1632 the area was cleared of native Indians. Opechancanough was later shot in the back by an English soldier while walking in the streets of Jamestown in 1644, at the age of about one hundred. The English were never aware of Opechancanough's past and did not know that he was literate, educated and well-travelled.

One of the prisoners, Mrs. Boyce, wife of either John Boyce of Martin's Hundred or his kinsman, Thomas Boyce of the same, was returned by the brother of Opechancanough, Opatchapan. "She was naked and unappareled, in manner and fashion like one of their Indian queens." By Christmas of 1622, Governor Wyatt reported that in defense agains the Indians that year, more Indians had lost their lives than in the total lost from 1607 to the time of the massacre. Other women held with her were: Mistress Jeffries, wife of Nathaniel Jeffries, who survived the uprising, and Jane Dickenson, wife of Ralph Dickenson, an indentured servant, who was slain in the assault. Seven of the possible twenty hostages had been returned by the end of 1624. Anne Jackson, one of the captives, was not returned until 1630, the rest were presumed dead. One of the returned captives, Mistress Jeffries, died within a few months of her release. Another captive, Anne Jackson, was returned is such poor health that she was returned to England as quickly as was possible. No fanfare accompanied the return of the women.

Near the end of 1623, Mr.Potts ransomed Jane Dickenson and other women from the Indians for a few pounds of beads. Unfortunately, Mr. Potts required that she serve indenture in order to pay for her release and added to her servitude the three years her husband had not served before he had been killed.

When news of the massacre reached England, it was received with shock. Colonization in America was discouraged and antiquated arms were overhauled and shipped to Virginia for the colonist's defense. The King sent twenty barrels of powder and Lord St.John of Basing sent sixty coats of mail. The city of London and private citizens made contributions towards an emergency fund. Though the King volunteered to send four hundred young men to replace those who perished, he failed to keep his promise.

In 1622 forty-two vessels travelled between Virginia and England and by Christmas day another 2,500 colonists joined the 893 survivors. Seventeen ships were anchored off Jamestown, their officers and crews attending church in he Jamestown Church. The colony was saved. It was also in 1622, in defiance of the King's orders that tobacco be limited to English trade only, that the Virginia planters sent tobacco in their own ships directly to Holland, thereby saving the English import duty as well as the one third of their crop that had been ordered to the King.

Edward Hill, in April of 1623 would write his brother:

"So the truth is we lyue in the fearfullest age that euer christians lyued in: And to speake the truth I stay to gett what I haue lost and then god willing I will leaue the Contrey: for this is the worst yeare here that ever I saw like to bee.. We are all like to haue the greatest famine in the land that euer was"... "we dare scarce stepp out of our dores neither for wood nor water. The last yeare I had a very hard yeare of it by reason of th'Indians and I feare this wilbe as bad: I lost the last yeare as many Cattle as were worth a 100 li".

Many of the plantations lay in ruins, with many of the settlers dead. Many of the planters had the additional problem of indentured servants to care for.

Hill, writing to his father-in-law wrote:

"I haue a great many people to keep and if I can but saue their liues I hope I doe not amiss".

The Death of a Company, The New Future

In 1624, following the massacre, Jamestown was declared a Crown colony and a census was taken to determine the number of survivors. There were 124 residents, including African-Americans, twenty-two houses, three stores, and a church. About 1,232 persons were said to be living at 25 locations in Virginia at that time.

John Bainham received a patent 1 Dec 1624 "of Kiccoughtan in the Corporation of Elizabeth City, gent.,... as his first dividend, 300 acres" about three miles "up Maine Creeke that runneth in between Haxoms Gaole and Blunt point and abutteth northerly upon a small brooke of the same parting it from the lands of Captain Samuel right of the transportation of of England of his son John Bainham deceased who came in the Charles 1621 and of Robert Draper who came in the Jacob in the present year 1624."

John Baynham's land was located opposite Mulberry Island in what is now the City of Newport News. Blunt Point River was what is now known as the Warwick River. John Bainham's will was proved 9 Feb 1628/29 and a letter of administration was granted to Elizabeth Bainham, widow of John. John appears to have died late 1628 or early Jan 1629. His friend and partner, Mr. Robert Sweete made an inventory of his estate.

The fort existed at Jamestown until the middle of the 1620’s but was replaced as a new town developed to the east end of the fort. Jamestown remained the capital of Virginia until the Statehouse burned in 1698 and the capital was moved to Williamsburg. Though the original Jamestown Fort was mentioned in the 1620's, mention of it disappears after that and the Fort was left to ruins. By the 1750’s, the land on which Jamestown had existed became highly cultivated as the property of the Travis and Ambler families.

Jamestown small fort
A miniature of Fort Jamestown

In 1631, in London, Captain John Smith died at the age of 51.

Hugh Bullock owned property in Virginia, though he did not remain in Virginia permanently. He did serve as Burgess and was a member of the Assembly 1631-34. In 1634 he received a patent for 2550 acres on the Pocoson River but is back in London by 1637 when he deeds his Virginia property to his son, William, with the stipulation that some income be sent to himself and his wife, should she outlive him.

In July of 1635, we see John Clay receiving 1,200 acres in Charles City County, due 100 acres to him as an old planter before the government of Thomas Dale and the remaining 1,100 acres for the transportation of 22 persons. John died before 4 Feb 1655/56 when Elizabeth Wall, his second wife, proved his will.

In the records of the High Court of Admiralty dated 24 Jul 1647, we find Walter Chiles Sr., of Bristol, a clothworker age 29, who signed his own name to the document stating that he was a passenger on the ship Blessing of Falmouth and was employed to assist Henry Tuton, the ship's purser. The ship spent fourteen weeks in Jamestown. Walter Chile probably first arrived in Virginia about 1636. Within six months, Walter had outfitted his own ship and was again in Virginia by 1 Mar 1638 when he received 400 acres in Charles City County, being 50 acres for himself; 50 for his wife, Elizabeth; 50 for his son, William; 50 for his son, Walter; and another 200 acres for the transportation of four other persons (Henry Fulton, John Govey, John Shaw and Sarah Cole). The land was located west of the Appamattuck (Appamattox) River. In 1641, Walter is a member of the Virginia Assembly and represented Charles County in the House of Burgesses in 1642-43 and represented James County 1645, 1646 and 1649. In 1649, Governor Berkeley sold Walter the home known as the "Kemp House" for the 26,000 pounds of tobacco. This was the first brick house in America and was locatedin Jamestown. Walter is granted another 613 acres on 20 Oct 1642. In 1652, we know Walter had a ship, The Fame of Virginia, which was involved in trade between Holland and England. In July of 1652, he was chosen as Speaker of the Assembly of the House of Burgesses but he refused, as he was in a dispute with authorities involving his ship.

18 Apr 1644 Opechancanough orders a second Massacre throughout the Virginia-Maryland region in which over 500 English are killed.

In 1651 the first Indian reservation is created near Richmond for the remnant of Pocahontas' people.

In 1662 Jamestown lost its status as the mandatory port for entry into Virginia.

Originally, "negro" slaves were treated the same as white servants; eating and sleeping with the white servants and subject to the same period of indenture and freedom. One of the first African slaves to be freed was John Geaween (Gowan) who was freed March 1641. The Virginia Council and General Court Records record that Emanuell Cambow (Cumbo) was granted fifty acres in James City County in 1667 and John Harris, a "negro" was free when he purchased fifty acres in York County. In 1690 John Carter freed slaves in Lancaster County in his will. Many free "negroes" lived along the Eastern Shore. In Northampton County at least forty taxable "negroes" are to be found in the 1670's. These free "negroes" grew to become large free families into the 1700's.





Our Jamestown Ancestors Include

Richard Pace and his wife, Isabelle Smith who arrived in Jamestown in 1611 on the ship Marmaduke. Richard's son, George Pace, born in England, came with his parents to Jamestown.

Rev.Samuel Maycock arrived in Jamestown 1617. Samuel and his wife, Unknown, had one daughter, Sarah, born in Jamestown 1622.

Rice Williams arrived in Jamestown before 1622.

John Banum/ Baynham arrived Jamestown 1616 on the "Susan" and is noted on the 1624 muster as age 54. An Elizabeth Banum arrived in Jamestown on the "Bona Nova" in 1620. She was probably John's wife. She is also shown on the Jamestown Muster as age 43. John and his wife, Elizabeth, lived in Elizabeth Cittie at the time of the muster along with Robert Sweete. John's son, John, arrived in November of 1621.

Benjamin Knight arrived in Jamestown in 1620 on the "Bona Nova" and is shown on the Eastern Shore in the 1624 muster.

John Trye arrived on the Abigaile in 1620 and is shown on the muster in 1624.

John Coker arrived in Jamestown and is noted on the 1624 Muster.

Edward Hill arrived in Jamestown. He and Thomas and William Hill escaped to Elizabeth City during the massacre.

Richard Jones, age 22 in the 1623-24 Muster

William Capps and wife Catherine Jernegan arrived in Jamestown in 1610. In 1612 William and Catherine were joined by William's mother, Cicely Brent or Grint.

Captain Hugh Bullock owned property in present York County, VA.

Walter Chiles, Sr. and his wife, Elizabeth arrive in Jamestown about 1636. Walter and Elizabeth's son, Walter is also in Jamestown where he became a member of Burgess in 1658.

John Clay arrived in Jamestown in February of 1613. John's wife, Ann Nicholls, arrived in 1623.

These are the names of the known ancestors who arrived in Jamestown prior to the Jamestown Massacre and survived the massacre, the starvations, the disease in order to produce descendants, among whom we are included.

In 1623,an indentured servant wrote his parents of his current life in the new colony. “LOVING AND KIND FATHER AND MOTHER: My most humble duty remembered to you, hoping in god of your good health, as I myself am at the making hereof. This is to let you understand that I you child am in a most heavy case by reason of the country, [which] is such that it causeth much sic kness, [such] as the scurvy and the bloody flux and diverse other diseases, which maketh the body very poor and weak. And when we are sick there is nothing to comfort us; for since I came out of the ship I never ate anything but peas, and loblollie (that is, water gruel). As for deer or venison I never saw any since I came into this land. There is indeed some fowl, but we are not allowed to go and get it, but must work hard both early and late for a mess of water gruel and a mouthful of bread and beef. A mouthful of bread for a penny loaf must serve for four men which is most pitiful. [You would be grieved] if you did know as much as I [do], when people cry out day and night – Oh! That they were in England…For we live in fear of the enemy every hour, yet we have had a combat with them … and we took two alive and made slaves of them. But it was by policy, for we are in great danger; for our plantation is very weak by reason of the death and sickness of our company. For we came but twenty for the merchants, and they are half dead just; and we look every hour when two more should go… And I have nothing to comfort me, nor is there nothing to be gotten here but sickness and death, except [in the event] that one had money to lay out in some things for profit. But I have nothing at all – no, not a shirt to my back but two rags (2), nor clothes but one poor suit, nor but one pair of shoes, but one pair of stockings,but one cap, [and] but two bands [collars]. My cloak is stolen by one of my fellows, and to his dying hour [he] would not tell me what he did with it; but some of my fel lows saw him have butter and beef out of a ship,which my cloak, I doubt [not], paid for. So that I have not a penny, nor a penny worth, to help me too either spice or sugar or strong waters, without the which one cannot live here. For as strong beer in England doth fatten and strengthen them, so water here doth wash and weaken these here…”


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